At the end of the 2nd floor, you now descend down to floor 1 and into Room 6.
The village of Deir el-Medina was founded in 1500BC on the West Bank of Thebes. It was the home of builders, chiselers, draftsmen, painters, and service personnel, with their families. Their task was to build and decorate the tombs in the Valley of the Kings and Queens.
No ordinary workers, they could read and write, shown by the ostraca and papyri found buried in the village.
The Foundation of the Village
Established under Tuthmosis I, expanded by Tuthmosis III, Horemheb and the first Rameside Kings. The village has revealed many testimonies of the posthumous cult of kings, by the craftsmen.
Left, Limestone, Cult Statue of Amenhotep I, 19-20th Dynasty (1292 -1076BC)
Far Right (middle), Painted Wooden Statue of Ahmose Nefertari, 19th Dynasty (1292- 1190BC)
In each house there were specific places dedicated to the cult of deities connected with domestic aspects of life, such as motherhood, childbearing and food supplies.
He we see Tawaret, protector of pregnant women.
Painted and Plastered wood, 19th Dynasty (1292 -1190BC)
Although the workers and their families formed separate and distinctive community, their lives were regulated by the national calendar and holidays. Some of the most important religious ceremonies were held in the Theban area, most notably the “Beautiful Festival of the Valley” and the “Opet Festival”.
Below, Statue of Penmernabu, Carved and painted Limestone, 19th Dynasty (1292 -1190BC) Deir el-Medina.
The site of Deir el-Medina has yielded a large number of figured Ostraca, which constitute a priceless means to lift the curtain on Egyptian artistic skills. These limestone chips carry a repertoire of images which do not occur in tombs or temples.
Last 2 Photos, Ostracon of an acrobatic dancer, 19-20th Dynasty (1291 – 1076BC) Deir el-Medina
Papyrus and the plan of the tomb of Ramesses IV
This papyrus is one of the many manuscripts of a well known scribe Amennakht, who was responsible possibly for the plan and its annotations of a plan of Ramesses IV’s tomb.
Cyperus papyrus, 20th Dynasty, Reign of Ramesses IV (1156 -1149BC) Deir el-Medina.
The Necropolis and Excavation of the Village.
The excavation of the necropolis began with the surrounding hills, where the workmen and their families were buried. Besides the chapel of Maia and the tomb of Kha, several other chapels were unearthed, with part of their original grave goods still preserved. These included Statuettes, Shabti, boxes and canopic jars.
Above, Limestone statue of Pendua and Nefertari, 19th Dynasty (1292 -1190BC) Deir el-Medina.
The Chapel of Maya
Maya and his wife, New Kingdom 1334 – 1324BC, Deir el-Medina. Discovered 1906 by E.Schiaparelli.
The walls were made of mud and straw bricks covered with plaster.